UPDATE 1. The Threat of UVA
UVA’s effects on the skin were still controversial in1989. Science maintained that this ray was as damaging if not more so than UVB, but back then almost all the research was devoted to UVB. This was due to the fact that sunscreens only protected from this primary burning ray.
Now, UVA is recognized as a primary contributor to an aging dermis and malignant melanoma. The melanoma connection is one reason why sunscreens are not allowed to claim UVA protection, which is identified as broad-spectrum protection on labels. Until 2012, broad-spectrum had no regulatory meaning, even though some brands used the phrase. Even though the U.S. Food and Drug Administration suggested a UVA-protection identification system years ago, there is still no way to tell how much UVA is absorbed just by looking at the label. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) remains the only rating for a sunscreen, and it only identifies how much UVB is screened, not UVA. So, even though a product can claim UVA protection, consumers still don’t know how much UVA is absorbed.
To be on the safer side, suggest SPFs in the 30 to 50 range. These higher SPF values screen some ultraviolet in the lower UVA spectrum, so the higher the SPF (up to SPF 50) the more likely the product protects from some, though probably not all, UVA.
UPDATE 2. Sunscreen Won’t Prevent Additional Burning
Redness is not a sign to reapply sunscreen, but rather a sign to get out of the sun. CUT OFF HERE When dealing with reapplication, the closest the FDA gets in its requirement for label directions is, “reapply every two hours,” in addition to reapplying after swimming or sweating. Instead of the current FDA direction, it should read, “Reapply every two hours if skin is not red. If it is, get out of the sun!”
Why be so picky? Since sunscreens don’t completely block the sun, a little UV always gets through. With skin is already burned, this small amount continues to add to the burn. To visualize this, imagine filling a glass with water until it starts to overflow. Once the water reaches the top of the glass, every drop that’s added causes water to spill over the sides. Applying more sunscreen over a burn won’t provide additional protection once the burn has begun. So tell your clients, “Once your skin is burned, get out of the sun!” because the label doesn’t.
UPDATE 3. No Such Thing As Sunblock
Once upon a time, products identified as sunblocks were defined by the FDA as those with a minimum of SPF12 provided by unmicronized titanium dioxide. In 1999, the FDA decided sunblock was not an honest way to describe a sunscreen to consumers since no sunscreen completely blocks UV rays.
An SPF 15 protects against 93% of UV rays, SPF 30 protects against 97%, SPF 50 wards off 98%, SPF 98 about 99%, and these percentages only apply if you rub on the same amount of sunscreen that was used in the test to determine SPF. If not, then you can be looking at less protection, sometimes by more than half the SPF rating.
Even a brief online search yielded an incorrect use of the terms, “sunblocks are formulated to shield against UVB rays while sunscreens protect against UVA.” No wonder consumers are confused. So get rid of the word sunblock unless you’re saying, “there’s no such thing as sunblock.” Sunblock is a false and misleading claim that causes a product to be misbranded according to the FDA.
UPDATE 4. Beyond the UV Spectrum
Although UVA and UVB are the most studied forms of sunlight when it comes to skin, they make up only seven percent of the total sunlight reaching earth. Due to their high energy, they’ve been viewed for decades as the most biologically disruptive. Scientists looking outside the UV spectrum have now identified infrared, the sun’s heat ray, as a major player in skin’s aging processes, as well as high energy visible (HEV) light.
HEV, also called near-UVA (nUVA), is the high frequency blue/violet light located immediately above UVA wavelengths. This is the part of sunlight that makes the sky look blue.
It is only in the last several years that researchers have confirmed HEV’s skin-damaging effects, which include weakened barrier function, depressed immunity and suppressed healing, uneven pigmentation, inflammation and redness, increased senescent cells, wrinkles, skin sagging, and photo-interactions with certain medications. To make matters worse, HEV isn’t restricted to sunlight.
You’ll find it in: the blue light emitted by computer monitors, flat screen TVs, mobile phones and tablets; energy-efficient cool white, fluorescent and full-spectrum lights; and reflective surfaces like concrete, glass, water and sand. It can also penetrate glass (think car, plane and office windows) just like UVA light.
Spanning across three distinct bands of light—infrared A, B and C—infrared accounts for 53% of the total rays reaching earth. While energy from the last two bands only penetrate the upper epidermis or are deflected altogether, the heat elicited by infrared is enough to literally “cook” cells and tissues, including vital collagen and elastin fibers. Infrared heat doesn’t just come from the sun, either. Hair dryers, heaters, fires, ovens, cooking ranges, halogen lights, infrared saunas, tanning beds, heat coming through windows, matches, lighters and cigarettes themselves are all common sources of infrared.
But it is infrared A, also known as “near infrared,” that is proving to be the most damaging. Accounting for a little over 30% of the sun’s total rays, infrared A’s long waves of energy penetrate through the epidermis and dermis into the underlying subcutaneous layer of skin, all the time magnifying the biological effects of UV to add its own stamp on photoaging. Dermatology researchers at Seoul National University College of Medicine in Seoul, Korea1 have studied infrared A’s effects and found, among many other detrimental results, it turns on 250 genes while turning off 349 genes2 involved in aging, inflammation, stress and immunosuppression.
Non-micronized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the two MINERAL FDA monograph-approved sunscreen ingredients that have been shown to screen HEV and infrared, although there are no clinical studies recognized by the FDA to show how much protection is provided when they are included in a particular product. Also, since both non-micronized versions of these two sunscreens leave the skin stark white, they’re not suitable for wearing, even under makeup. Even if they were, at this time protection from infrared or HEV is not allowed as a sunscreen claim in the U.S.
UPDATE 5. Sun Protection in Non-sunscreens
People may think they’re protected when they use a cosmetic product with SPF, but they’re not. This is because the amount of sunscreen required by the FDA during the SPF testing procedure is much more than most people apply in “real life.” According to an FDA insider, to get the proper amount of SPF 15 you would have to: use an entire tube of lipstick in one application, apply 7 times the amount of foundation most people wear, and apply two full fingers of moisturizer. Don’t count on your mineral makeup either. The FDA ordered SPF claims to be removed from powders in 2012.
No Final Monograph
Finally, the sunscreen monograph that regulates sunscreens under the FDA still isn’t final. So, until it is, the law requires us to honor the latest regulations published by the FDA.
To read them for yourself, go to http://bit.ly/2FjX65Z.
IN CONCLUSION: We cannot rely on ANY sunscreen (chemical or mineral) to provide complete protection from the sun. Mineral sunscreens sit on the skin’s surface and reflect sunlight. Chemical sunscreens are absorbed, and once the sun hits a chemical sunscreen, it neutralizes UV rays. As soon as that chemical neutralizes UV, it becomes ineffective. It now leaves behind the residue of the broken-down chemicals becoming unhealthy chemicals which are re-absorbed into the body. Not to mention a large amount of chemical sunscreens are becoming banned in the US and EU.
~Excerpted from Rebecca Gadberry
FDA Admits Most Sunscreens Are Probably Unsafe
· Of the 16 active sunscreen ingredients used in products on the U.S. market, only two — non-nano-sized zinc oxide and titanium dioxide — have been deemed safe for human use by the FDA
· FDA admits scientific data are lacking for 12 active sunscreen ingredients on its list, and asks industry to help in providing more data in order to perform a “rigorous assessment” of all active ingredients on the market
· One of the 12 active sunscreen ingredients the FDA claims to be unsure about is oxybenzone, found in an estimated 70 percent of sunscreens. Evidence suggests oxybenzone is an endocrine disruptor [Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine systems at certain doses. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors.], and it is known to decimate coral reefs and harm aquatic life
· Research shows 13 of 29 sunscreen chemicals (45 percent) allowed in the U.S. and/or European Union have the ability to reduce male fertility by affecting calcium signaling in sperm, in part by exerting a progesterone-like effect.
CHEMICAL SUNSCREENS ABSORB INTO YOUR BLOODSTREAM IN ONE DAY
Sunscreen is widely overused
There are some circumstances where it is wise and appropriate to use but those cases are few and far between. First of all, rely on sensible sun exposure. Get out of the sun or wear clothing the moment your skin starts to turn light pink. Make sure you are consuming the proper nutrients which may give you some natural protection from the inside.
Having laid that foundation, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently proposed new regulations1 to “make sure sunscreens are safe and effective.” If enacted, this could have a transformative effect on the sunscreen industry as a whole.
All of the active sunscreen ingredients used in products on the U.S. market, only two — non-nano-sized zinc oxide and titanium dioxide — have been deemed safe for human use by the FDA.
Yeah, I know what you’re likely thinking. You can trust the FDA about as far as you can throw them. It’s a captured agency and essentially controlled by the very industry it is seeking to regulate. However, there appear to be no vested interests here and I believe they got it right this time.
In its proposal, the FDA admits it does not have enough scientific data to draw any conclusions about the safety of 12 of the 16 active sunscreen ingredients on its list, and asks industry to help in providing more data to perform a “rigorous assessment” of all active ingredients on the market.
Two of the 16 ingredients, PABA and trolamine salicylate, have been deemed unsafe, or not generally recognized as safe (GRAS), and are not currently in use according to the FDA.
The proposal also includes broad updates to labeling requirements, as well as SPF-related changes. For the latter, FDA wants sunscreens with an SPF of 15 or higher to provide broad spectrum protection against both UVA and UVB rays, not just UVB as is currently the case. Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research said: “It is important that, as this rulemaking effort moves forward and the FDA gathers additional scientific information, given the recognized public health benefits of sunscreen use, consumers continue to use sunscreen in conjunction with other sun-protection measures. To help make sure this effort is successful, the FDA is looking to industry to gather the data needed to help ensure that products marketed to offer protection from the sun’s effects are safe and deliver on these promises.”
Evidence of Toxicity Exists For Several Sunscreen Ingredients
One of the 12 active sunscreen ingredients the FDA claims to be unsure about is oxybenzone, found in an estimated 70 percent of sunscreens. Studies showi this chemical acts as an endocrine disruptor and has been linked to reduced sperm count3 in men and endometriosis4 in women.
Research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows 96 percent of the U.S. population has oxybenzone in their bodies, which is a testament to just how much sunscreen people are using.
Indeed, daily use of sunscreen is one of the reasons cited by the FDA for the need to update safety regulations. People are using far more sunscreen these days, so exposure to potentially hazardous ingredients is of far greater concern than in decades past.
Oxybenzone is also lethal to certain sea creatures, including horseshoe crab eggs, and researchers warn the widespread use of oxybenzone-containing sunscreens pose a serious threat to coral reefs and sea life.5 This effect is what prompted Hawaiian lawmakers to ban the sale of sunscreens containing oxybenzone and octinoxate, both of which have been linked to severe coral damage.6,7
Many Sunscreen Ingredients Have Endocrine Disrupting Effects
Oxybenzone isn’t the only endocrine disruptor though. At least eight other active sunscreen ingredients are suspected of having endocrine disrupting effects.8,9
According to a recent Danish study,10 13 of 29 sunscreen chemicals (45 percent) allowed in the U.S. and/or European Union have the ability to reduce male fertility by affecting calcium signaling in sperm, in part by exerting a progesterone-like effect. Of those 13 chemicals, eight are approved for use in the U.S.
Octisalate (also known as octyl salicylate)
Octinoxate (octyl methoxycinnamate)
Octocrylene (2-ethylhexyl-2-ciano-3, 3-diphenyl acrylate), a relatively new cinnamate that has both UVB and some UVA absorbing properties is photostable and thought to be non-allergenic and non-irritating. Its widespread use in sunscreen and cosmetic products has led to an increase in octocrylene sensitization, so that it is now a prime photo-allergen of chemical absorbing sunscreens.
THIS IS WHY I CAUTION EVERYONE ON ANYTHNG WITH RETINOLS/VITAMIN A IN IT TO APPLY IT IN THE EVENING, AND TO USE SUNSCREEN WHILE ON THEM.
Oxybenzone (also called benzophenone-3)
These chemicals can also be found in makeup, moisturizers and lip balms with sunscreen protection. "These results are of concern and might explain in part why unexplained infertility is so prevalent," senior investigator, Niels Skakkebaek, professor at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and a researcher at the Copenhagen University Hospital, said.11
MANY SUNSCREENS also contain vitamin A and/or its derivatives, retinol and retinyl palmitate, which have been linked to an increased risk of skin cancer by increasing the speed at which malignant cells develop and spread.
Some Sunscreen Ingredients Are Also Neurotoxic
Researchers have also warned that some sunscreen ingredients are neurotoxic, posing a hazard to brain health. The authors of this study noted that since sunscreens need to be applied in significant amounts all over the body, calculations suggest the total amount of a given compound being absorbed from a single application could be as high as 200 milligrams.12
According to the above-referenced study, other studies also show these chemicals are found in blood, urine and breast milk following application, in some cases within as little as two hours. According to the authors:
“[W]hile sunscreens have been effective in protecting against a variety of UV-related pathologies … growing popularity and thus, possibility for exposure questions their safety in environment and human health …
The endocrine disruptive and developmental toxicity of many organic UV filters in experimental models is well established; these filters seem to be associated with altered estrogen, androgen and progesterone activity, reproductive and developmental toxicity and impaired functioning of the thyroid, liver or kidneys …
Since many of UV filters were shown to cross the blood-brain barrier, the risk for neurotoxicity also occurs … [S]ince it is known that other chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors can impair neuronal transmission, synaptic plasticity and produce neurotoxic effects, chemical filters might potentially produce similar effect.”
Sunscreen ingredients found to have neurotoxic* effects in this study included:
- A neurotoxin is a poison that acts on the nervous system
- Octyl methoxycinnamate — Found to decrease motor activity in female rats and alter the release of a number of different neurotransmitters
- Benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) — Decreases cell viability of neurons, and upregulates estrogenic-related genes in male animals
- Benzophenone-4 — Allergic Contact dermatitis (RASHES)
The first contact reaction to benzophenones in sunscreen products was first documented in 1972. Benzophenone sensitivity produces classic allergic contact dermatitis as well as photo-contact dermatitis. In benzophenone allergic individuals, products containing benzophenone or benzophenone derivatives may cause redness, swelling, itching and fluid-filled blisters.
Symptoms may appear immediately or several days later (delayed contact and photo-contact dermatitis). In severe cases anaphylaxis may occur.
In addition to allergic reactions, concerns have been raised about the relative ease of which benzophenone is absorbed into the skin and may promote generation of potentially harmful free radicals. Also, recent reports of oxybenzone having hormonal effects in animal studies has deterred some people from using sunscreen products. The long-term use of these agents in sunscreens is unknown and further research is warranted.
4-methylbenzylidene camphor — Decreased cell viability and impaired neuronal development in lab animals
Octocrylene — Impaired expression of genes related to brain development and brain metabolism
The authors also stress that simultaneous application of insect repellents such as DEET enhances the penetration of the compounds, thereby multiplying their potential toxicity.
Avoid Sunscreens With Nanoparticles
Most nanoscale particles (microscopic particles measuring less than 100 nanometers)13 found in American sunscreens are either titanium dioxide or zinc oxide.14 While these two are the only ingredients known to be safe, this safety does not extend to nano-sized versions.
Animal research has shown that inhaled nanoparticles can reach all areas of your respiratory tract and, since your lungs have difficulty clearing small particles, they may pass into your bloodstream. Other studies have proven some nanoparticles are even able to cross your blood-brain barrier.
If allowed to enter your lungs or penetrate your skin, nanoparticles therefore have the potential to cause widespread damage to your cells and organs, immune system, nervous system, heart and brain.15,16 FDA has previously expressed concern that inhaling these products may be risky, especially to children, and in 2014, Consumer Reports advised parents to avoid spray-on sunscreens until the FDA had finished reviewing the sunscreens.17
Some scientists postulate that the toxic effects of nanoparticles relate to their size being in the range of a virus, which may trigger your body’s immune response.18 The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified titanium dioxide as a “possible carcinogen” when inhaled in high doses.19
Inhaling higher amounts of zinc oxide can lead to “metal fume fever,”20 characterized by chest pain, cough, dyspnea, reduced lung volumes, nausea, chills, malaise and leukocytosis. One 2012 study21 found zinc oxide nanoparticles to be cytotoxic. They elevated zinc levels causing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis (cell death).
Similarly, an Indian study concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles cause toxicity in human lung cells possibly through “stress-induced apoptosis.”22 Human studies are sorely lacking as to the health effects of inhaling of zinc oxide particles, especially at lower levels, such as from brief exposure to sunscreen spray.
However, using these spray-on products are clearly an unnecessary risk since safer options are readily available. Your safest bet is to use topical zinc oxide or titanium dioxide that does not contain nanosized particles.
Reduce Your Risk of Sunburn Naturally With Internal Sunscreens
While sun avoidance recommendations make it sound as though all sun exposure is dangerous, the primary risk factor of skin cancer is sunburn, which is an inflammatory process that damages your skin. Sensible sun exposure is actually a crucially important component of good health, as your body produces vitamin D in response to UVB light striking your skin.
It’s important therefore to maintain a balance — you want to expose large portions of skin (without sunscreen on) to sunlight on a regular basis (ideally daily), yet be very careful to avoid getting burned.
Aside from covering up before you get burned, you can reduce your risk of sunburn by eating plenty of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, and/or taking an astaxanthin supplement. The latter has been shown to work as an effective internal sunscreen, protecting your skin from UV radiation damage.
In addition to copious testimonials and anecdotal evidence, scientific studies have substantiated these skin protective effects.23
In one study, subjects who took 4 milligrams of astaxanthin per day for two weeks showed a significant increase in the amount of time necessary for UV radiation to redden their skin. Animal studies lend further evidence to astaxanthin’s effects as an internal sunscreen:
In one study, mice were fed various combinations of astaxanthin, beta-carotene and retinol for four months. Astaxanthin was substantially effective in preventing photoaging of the skin after UV radiation, as measured by markers for skin damage24
A rat study found astaxanthin was found to be 100 times stronger than beta-carotene and 1,000 times stronger than lutein in preventing UVA light-induced oxidative stress25. The Journal of Dermatological Science published a study in 2002 finding astaxanthin is able to protect against alterations in human DNA induced by UVA light exposure26.
How to Choose a Safer Sunscreen
With all the sunscreens on the market, how do you identify a safe one? The key to remember is that there really are only two known safe sunscreen ingredients — zinc oxide and titanium dioxide27 — and they must not be nano-sized.
Your safest choice is a lotion or cream with zinc oxide, as it is stable in sunlight and provides the best protection from UVA rays.28 Your next best option is titanium dioxide. Just make sure the product does not contain nano sized particles and protects against both UVA and UVB rays.
Keep in mind that SPF protects only from UVB rays (although if the FDA’s proposed rules are implemented, any SPF at or above 15 must protect against both UVA and UVB), which are the rays within the ultraviolet spectrum that allow your skin to produce vitamin D.
The most dangerous rays, in terms of causing skin damage and cancer, are the UVA rays. Avoid sunscreens with an SPF above 50. While not intrinsically harmful, the higher SPF tends to provide a false sense of security, encouraging you to stay in the sun longer than you should.
Moreover, higher SPF typically does not provide much greater protection. In fact, research suggests people using high-SPF sunscreens get the same or similar exposure to UV rays as those using lower-SPF products. What’s more, a recent analysis29 by Consumer Reports found many sunscreens are far less effective than claimed on the label; 24 of the 73 products evaluated offered less than half of the protection promised by their stated SPF.
Other Sensible Sunning Tips
I recommend spending time in the sun regularly — ideally daily. Sunshine offers substantial health benefits, provided you take a few simple precautions to protect yourself from overexposure.
Here are five sensible sunning tips:
1. Give your body a chance to produce vitamin D before you apply sunscreen. Expose large amounts of your skin (at least 40 percent of your body) to sunlight for short periods daily. Optimizing your vitamin D levels may reduce your risk of many internal cancers, and actually reduces your risk of melanoma as well.
Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency
1. Vitamin D deficiency can occur for a number of reasons:
· You don't consume the recommended levels of the vitamin over time. This is likely if you follow a strict vegan diet, because most of the natural sources are animal-based, including fish and fish oils, egg yolks, fortified milk, and beef liver.
· Your exposure to sunlight is limited. Because the body makes vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight, you may be at risk of deficiency if you are homebound, live in northern latitudes, wear long robes or head coverings for religious reasons, or have an occupation that prevents sun exposure.
· You have dark skin. The pigment melanin reduces the skin's ability to make vitamin D in response to sunlight exposure. Some studies show that older adults with darker skin are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency.
· Your kidneys cannot convert vitamin D to its active form. As people age, their kidneys are less able to convert vitamin D to its active form, thus increasing their risk of vitamin D deficiency.
· Your digestive tract cannot adequately absorb vitamin D. Certain medical problems, including Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, and celiac disease, can affect your intestine's ability to absorb vitamin D from the food you eat.
· Obesity. Vitamin D is extracted from the blood by fat cells, altering its release into the circulation. People with a body mass index of 30 or greater often have low blood levels of vitamin D.
2. Stay out just long enough for your skin to turn the very lightest shade of pink. Shield your face from the sun using a safe sunscreen or hat, as your facial skin is thin and more prone to sun damage, such as premature wrinkling.
3. When you'll be in the sun for longer periods, cover up with clothing, a hat or shade (either natural or shade you create using an umbrella). A safe sunscreen can be applied after you've optimized your skin’s daily vitamin D production, although clothing is your safest option to prevent burning and skin damage.
Keep in mind that in order for sunscreen to be effective, you must apply large amounts over all exposed areas of your skin. This means the product should not trigger skin allergies and must provide good protection against UVA and UVB radiation. Sunscreen should not be absorbed into your skin, as the most effective sunscreen acts as a topical barrier.
4. Consider the use of an "internal sunscreen" like astaxanthin to gain additional sun protection. Typically, it takes several weeks of daily supplementation to saturate your body’s tissues enough to provide protection. Astaxanthin can also be applied topically, which is why it’s now being incorporated into a number of topical sunscreen products.
Lycopene has been proven to add a layer of "natural sun-protection" from the inside out. Consuming tomatoes, and tomato products may protect your body against sunburn & sun-induced aging.
Taking the supplements: resveratrol, green-tea extract, lutein, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, pomegranate extract, and CoQ10 will aid in the protective anti-aging/anti-photo damage protection even more.
Consuming a healthy diet full of natural antioxidants is another highly useful strategy to help avoid sun damage. Fresh, raw, unprocessed foods deliver the nutrients that your body needs to maintain a healthy balance of omega-6 and animal-based DHA omega-3 oils in your skin, which are your first lines of defense against sunburn. Without enough natural skin oil (sebum) within the cells of the skin, it makes it harder for the skin to create the vitamin D from the suns rays, to be absorbed into the bloodstream. THIS is the best way to obtain the healthiest, natural form of usable Vitamin D.
Vegetables also provide your body with an abundance of powerful antioxidants that will help you fight the free radicals caused by sun damage that can lead to burns and cancer.
By Linda Geddes: SLIP! Slop! Slap!
As public-health campaigns go, Cancer Council Australia’s dancing seagull telling people to slip on a shirt, slop on some sunscreen and slap on a hat must rank among the stickiest in history. Launched in 1981, it prompted many a devoted sun worshipper to reconsider whether a “healthy tan” was virtuous, or a herald of premature skin ageing and cancer.
It seems to have been effective: after increasing in the general population for decades, rates of the deadliest form of skin cancer, melanoma, are now falling among Australians under the age of 40. “These are people who will have been exposed to the [Slip, Slop, Slap] message for pretty much their whole lives,” says Heather Walker of Cancer Council Australia.
But has this come at a cost? In Australia and worldwide, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is increasing – and sunscreen has taken much of the blame. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with weaker bones and teeth, infections, cardiovascular disease and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis. And although vitamin D supplements have been touted as a solution, so far they don’t seem to have the effect that was expected. Now evidence is accumulating that sun exposure has benefits beyond vitamin D.
All of this has prompted some to label sunscreen “the new margarine” – a reference to health advice in the 1980s and 90s to switch from butter to hydrogenated vegetable oil to protect heart health, only to discover that the trans-fats found in many margarines were potentially more dangerous.